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Wagner, you're not gonna get a straight answer from folk who see no difference in the way Israel functioned from the way the Church functions. If by Prosperity Theology you mean the authentic religious belief and behavior that focuses on prosperity and equates it with blessing that goes on today, then no: the OT does not teach Prosperity Theology.
If by Prosperity Theology you mean that predicated upon their Covenantal conformity, Israel would remain under the purview of God's promises and therefore be endowed with blessing but if they stepped out of the Covenantal boundaries they could expect cursing then yes. God wanted to add to them (not only physically but spiritually and bountifully) to be a testimony to the nations about them. They agreed to this and all that it entails. The negative is that stepping outside of what God demanded would still result in them being a testimony, albeit as a pariah.
Prosperity Theology as dictated in the second bit is not valid for Today. First the Law Covenant was made with Israel not with Nebuchadnezzar and not with the Church. Second because the Law invariably pointed at its own limitations within the covenant community of Israel that would be people who had an external law. Thirdly, a tit-for-tat system doesn't work because all that winds up being leftover is a bunch of dead people or people hedging God's Law so no one even comes near breaking the Law. Fourthly, the focus is thrown off: God wants to bless people in ways that matter by being in a love affair with Him--not by ignoring him for the baubles he hands us. That's why he specifies "Use everything I give you for everyone else. Debase yourself extravagantly: Learn from Me."
The New Testament teaches the ultimate prosperity of believers but never makes it conditional upon keeping the Covenant--which is not something people can do anyway. Who can write a law on a heart but God?
Why not? Because the New Testament is only a series of mail, a couple of historical retellings, and focused on making grown up Sons--not children that need a school marm to dictate do's and don'ts while offering candied kisses or wrist lashes depending on what is done. There's warnings a plenty, and there's the danger of being derailed: but God is working and conforming. Completely different from the way He dealt with humanity in the OT.
God never changed His mind. His plan was in play from the get go in the garden but people revolted. God is just and as such He teaches a valuable lesson under various economies of dealing with humanity and offering witness and testimony and responsibility. The lesson is this: You're only hope is by going through God. Now if the plan was always there why wasn't it obvious? Well there's pointers in the OT but they were never revealed until it became evident in the NT Times.
I'm typing quickly without citing though I'm making allusions to several passages. Sorry: I'm on someone else's computer.
And dabs the flowing tears with a fistful of dollars.